The areas of cardiothoracic surgery are congenital cardiac surgery, heart and lung transplant surgery, general thoracic surgery, and adult cardiac surgery. A medical doctor who specializes in surgical procedures which may involve the heart, oesophagus, lungs and other organs in the chest is known as a cardiothoracic surgeon.
Along with performing surgery, diagnosis and treatment of disease of these organs is the main objective. This includes surgeons who are cardiac surgeons, general thoracic surgeons, cardiovascular surgeons, and congenital heart surgeons. The diagnosis and treatment which include operative and nonoperative of patients with disorders within the chest involving the heart and vascular system, oesophagus, lungs, trachea, diaphragm and chest wall is known as cardiothoracic surgery. It also includes management of congenital and acquired disorders and trauma of the above-mentioned organs.