CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Coronary artery bypass grafting shortly known as CABG is a type of surgery that is used to treat people with severe coronary heart diseases and it improves blood flow to the heart.They are done mainly to remove blockages like hardened plaque which builds up inside the coronary arteries making them narrow and reduces the flow of oxygen- rich blood to the heart which causes severe chest pain or angina.
In some cases, the plaque ruptures and a blood clot are formed on the surface.Large blood clots will completely block the blood flow through a coronary artery which is the most common cause of a heart attack.

Heart Specialist

During CABG treatments a healthy vein or artery from the body is grafted or connected to the blocked coronary artery. The grafted vein or artery bypasses or goes around the blocked portion of the coronary artery and creates a new path for blood to flow to the heart. Surgeons can do multiple bypasses of coronary arteries during a single surgery. Procedures like percutaneous coronary intervention in short PCI or coronary angioplasty are other nonsurgical treatments done before CABG.During this procedure a small mesh called stent is placed to open narrow or blocked coronary arteries.

CABG is a better option if there are severe blockages in large coronary arteries and especially if our heart's pumping action has grown weak already.CABG may also be an only option if blockages in the heart cannot be treated with PCI.CABG is usually done when most other treatments fail, and the results of this surgery are excellent in many people and lower the risk of heart attacks and can live symptom free 10-15 years though in some patients with diabetes the symptoms do recur. Surgery are repeated if blockages form in the grafted veins or arteries or in veins and arteries that were not blocked before. Making lifestyle changes and taking medicines prescribed that the doctor recommends can eliminate the risk of a graft becoming blocked.
There are many types of coronary artery bypass grafting and the surgeon determines the best option based on the patient’s needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Minimal Invasive Direct coronary artery bypass surgery and Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting are the methods used in surgery. Traditional CABG is used mainly when one major artery at least needs to be bypassed and during this surgery the chest bone is opened to do surgery in the heart.
A heart-lung bypass machine keeps oxygen and blood moving to other parts of body during surgery while medicines are given to the heart. This allows the surgeon to operate on heart when it is still without beating or blood pumping out of it.Immediately after the surgery blood flow to the heart is restored and the heart starts beating again on its own. Sometimes in rare cases mild electric shocks have to be used to restart the heart.

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